Advent calendar December 12th 2018

Our twelfth advent calendar post is once again items from the Oseberg burial, Norway. But this time it is fragments from a tablet woven bands.
The textile is made out of wool. 

The ship, from where the textile was found, was built 820 AD and the grave was covered  834 AD. The ship was covered with clayey soil. This has protected the grave as clay-rich soil is very low in oxygen.

Now in the collections of Kulturhistorisk museum, Oslo, Norway.
/ Amica and Maria
Photo: Historical Textiles

Advent calendar December 11th 2018

Our eleventh advent calendar post is once again a piece of a decorative weave from the Oseberg burial, Norway. It’s a piece from the same decorative weave as in this lovely film we linked to today. 
The textile is made out of wool. 

The ship, from where the textile was found, was built 820 AD and the grave was covered  834 AD. The ship was covered with clayey soil. This has protected the grave as clay-rich soil is very low in oxygen.

Now in the collections of Kulturhistorisk museum, Oslo, Norway.
/ Amica and Maria
Photo: Historical Textiles

Advent calendar December 8th 2018

Our eight advent calendar post is an embroidery from Fogdö church, Sweden. Made in long armed cross stitch. Wool on linen. But today we focus on the colours. Or rather the lack of colours. Some dyes fade quicker then others. The pinkish purple colour on this embroidery have faded a lot. But on the backside one can get a feel for the original colour. 

We don’t know what kind of pigment that was used to dye this pinkish purple colour. 

The embroidery is dated late 15th century. 

Now in collections of Historiska museet, Sweden.
/ Amica and Maria
Photo: Historical Textiles

Frontside- where the thread have broken, one can see that the thread sticking out use to be pinkish. 
Backside 

Advent calendar December 7th 2018

Our seventh advent calendar post is, technically speaking, not a textile any more. But it used to be. In 1361 the bodies of the fallen from The Battle of Wisby was buried outside of the city of Visby on Gotland, Sweden. The med were buried in their armors and clothes as they wore that day, 27th of July 1361. The textiles have after 569 years in the ground  gone missing. But at some places where the textile have been in close contact with the metal from the armors, the textile have become metallized after so long time in contact with the metal.

This piece of amour might give us an indication on where on the body the textile were used. If the textile imprint in placed on the inside of a lamella from a coat of plates, one can assume that the textile have been part of some sort of clothing on that person. Sometimes it’s even possible to tell the weaving technique and even the fiber content. 

The lamella with textile is dated to 27th of July 1361. 

Now in collections of Historiska museet, Sweden.
/ Amica and Maria
Photo: Historical Textiles

46/2018- A good quality wool fabric from Uppsala

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Denna textil är hittad vid utgrävningarna i kvarteret Rådhuset i Uppsala. Textilien är daterad till 1200-1500. Idag är den en del av samlingarna från Historiska Museet.

Fragmentet är ett ylletyg, vävt i  2/2 kypert och är av en relativt fin kvalité, även om den i dag är mycket tunnsliten. Varptråden är tunn och jämn, den är Z-spunnen med många snoddvarv per cm. Inslaget är lite tjockare än varpen. Inslaget är S- spunnet och har inte heller lika många snoddvarv per cm, detta medför att inslaget är lösare och fyller ut mer än vad varpen gör, i tyget. Därför är det också färre inslag per cm än det är med antalet varptrådar per cm. Att förhållandet mellan inslag och varp är så här pass olika är mycket vanligt under medeltiden.

Tittar man noga längs kanterna finns det på sina håll tydliga lämningar av tidigare stygn. Dessa stygn syns idag som ett antal runda små hål, och de är placerade på rad efter varandra. Jämnt fördelade.

Fragmentet räknar vi till grupp 3 – fragment av utslitna klädesplagg. Det skulle mycket väl ha kunnat varit ett klädesplagg ursprungligen. Vilket plagg tror du att det kan ha varit en del av?

Trevlig helg,
Amica och Maria


Photo: Ola Myrin, SHM

This textile fragment was found at the excavations at Rådhuset (City Hall) in Uppsala. The textile is dated to 1200-1500. Today it is part of the collections at The Swedish History Museum.

The fragment is a woolen fabric, woven in 2/2 twill and of a relatively fine quality, although today it is very worn and thin. The warp threads are thin and even, they are Z-spun with a high twist per cm. The weft is a bit thicker than the warp. The warp is S-spun and does not have as many twists per cm, which means that the warp is looser and fills out the fabric more than the warp does. Therefore, there are also fewer weft threads per cm than warp threads per cm. This kind of sett is very common during the Middle Ages.

Looking closely along the edges, remains of previous stitches are plainly visible. These stitches can be seen today as a number of small round holes, evenly spaced in a row. We classify the fragment as group 3 – fragments from worn-out garments. It could very well have been a garment originally.
What do you think it may have been a part of?

Happy weekend!
Amica and Maria

44/2018- The archaeological medieval textile fragments from Swedish cities

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På Historiska museet i Stockholm pågår just nu ett arbete med att förbättra och dela information om de ca 1000 medeltida arkeologiska textilfragment som museet förvaltar. Det innebär att nya bilder fotograferas och fragmenten kommer att analyseras och kategoriseras i visuella grupper, som gör att de blir lättare att prata om olika textilkvalitéer. Bild och analys kommer sedan att föras in i museets databas och bli sökbart. Det kommer dock dröja ytterligare innan det är publicerat eftersom museet byter föremålsförvaltningssystem. Men vi kan inte hålla oss utan kommer börja lägga upp fina nyfotograferade fynd här på vår blogg.

Fyndmaterialet som nu gås igenom kommer från arkeologiska utgrävningar som gjorts framförallt på 1970-talet i olika svenska städernas stadskärnor. En del av samlingen som finns på museet kommer från Enköping, från kvarteret Traktören, och den första textilien som vi visar idag kommer därifrån.

Det arkeologiska medeltida textilfragmenten från våra städer kan delas in i fem grupper
1- borttappade föremål, ex en vante
2 -spill från tillverkning
3 -fragment av utslitna klädesplagg
4 -rester av grövre emballage textil
5 -trådar, filtad ull eller lös ull

Av de ca 1000 fragmenten som finns på museet tillhör en mycket liten del grupp ett.

Fragmentet på bilden är en 2/1 kypert, ull. Fragmentet är mycket slitet så det kommer troligen från ett utslitet klädesplagg eller en inrednings textil som exempelvis en dyna. Idag är textilen ljusbrun och ingen synlig färg framträder. Men om man tittar uppe till höger i bilden syns släppta trådar. Detta indikerar att det här har varit en vävd rand som bundit i tuskaft/ inslagsrips. Dateringen är “medeltid”. Vi placerar denna väv till 1300-talet då den har det karakteristiska ränderna som är vanliga för tiden.
/ Amica och Maria

Foto Ola Myrin, SHM

At the Historical Museum in Stockholm, work is right now being done to improve and share information about the approximately 1000 medieval archaeological textiles that the museum manages. This means that new photos are being taken and the fragments will be analyzed and categorized into visual groups, that will make it easier to talk about different textile qualities. Photo and analyzed result will then be uploaded into the museum’s database and become searchable. However, it will take some time before it is published because the museum is changing the system for the database. But we can’t wait and will start posting nice photos of the finds here on our blog.

The material currently under review comes from archeological excavations made mainly in the 1970s in the city centers of different cities in Sweden. A part of the collection that is found at the museum comes from Enköping, from the quarter of Traktören, and the first textile presented today comes from there.

The archaeological medieval textile fragments from our cities can be divided into five groups
1 – lost items, for an exempel, a mitten
2 – left overs from manufacture
3 -fragments from worn out garments
4 – residue of coarser packaging textile
5 – threads, felted wool or loose wool

Of the approximately 1,000 fragments found in the museum a very small part belongs to group 1.

The fragment is a 2/1 twill, wool. The fragment is very worn, so it probably comes from a worn out garment or an interior textile, like as a cushion. Today the textile is light brown and no visible color is shown. But if you look at the top right in the picture you see some loose threads. This indicates that this textile have had a woven stripe, woven in plain weave/ extended tabby. The dating is “medieval”. We place this fabric in the 14th century as it has the characteristic stripes that are commonplace at the time.

The fabric is what we would describe as an medium quality suitable for an example kirtles and hoods.
/ Amica and Maria

42/2018- Close up Birka

We would like to wish you all a happy weekend with some close up pictures of some finds from the excavation from Birka, Björkö, Sweden.

The finds from Birka are world famous. Not only the amazing metal finds with brooches, swords and a lot of bling. But also for some breathtaking tablet woven bands with brocade in both silver and gold. Not to mention the super cool posaments finds attached to hats and other items.

Today we focus on the lovely small pieces of decorative wool textiles. And a lovely deer in gold thread. The first two pictures are both pieces of woven tapestry, the third picture is a brocaded tabby/type “krabbasnår”  and the fourth is the weird deer.

Dating 850- 1000 AD.
We have now over 11.000 followers on our Facebook page and we are super happy that you follow the page and that you share and comment on the posts we add. You all are very precious to us <3

Hugs,
Amica and Maria

 

25/2018- From Herjolfsnes, Greenland

We would like to wish you all a happy weekend with a historical textile!
It’s late and we have been working hard in the dye pots all day long. But to keep our promise, to give you nice pictures once a week, we just post pictures of a celebrity everyone already know.

From the exhibition at National museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. A children’s kirtle made in wool from Herjolfsnes on Greenland.
Check out the lovely 2/2 twill and the nice front gore. The kirtle is dated to late 14th century ( please tell us if we are wrong- can’t find the book at this hour…) !

Happy weekend!
/ Amica and Maria

SparaSpara

16/2018 The weekend picture

We would like to wish you all a happy weekend with a historical textile.

This week we focus on an embroidery on a chasuble. Wool application on wool. With details in gold thread. Some of the gold has fallen off and then you can see the silk core of the gold thread.

The chasuble comes from an unknown church in Jämtland, Sweden. Now in the collections of Statens Historiska museum in Sweden.
It is dated to 1350-1500 AD. We would like to place it to 15th century.

/ Amica and Maria

SparaSpara

Sytråd från Sigtuna/ Sewing thread from Sigtuna

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Vi får ofta frågor om vilken tråd man sytt sina kläder med under olika historiska perioder. Det finns inget enkelt svar eftersom det statistiska underlaget väldigt ofta är bristfälligt. Väldigt ofta saknas sömmar eller sytrådar i arkeologiska fynd. Men när vi ser sytråd i de textilier vi analyserat så blir vi givetvis väldigt glada och lägger till den informationen i vår samlade databas av sömmar och stygn.

Cellulosa bryts ner av fukt och klarar sig därför väldigt dåligt i jorden. Det är därför ganska ovanligt att hitta linne eller lintråd bland de arkeologiska fynden. Det finns dock både linne och lintråd i ett flertal textilier som bevarats ovan jord.
Ull bryts inte ner lika snabbt som cellulosa och därför är bevarandegraden högre för ull. Jordfunna textiler är inte representativa för de sorters textilier som har används under den aktuella tidsperioden på platsen.

Nedan ser vi en sytråd i ett av de textila fynden från Sigtuna. Sytråden är spunnen av ull. Detta fynd är daterat till första halvan av 1000-talet. Tråden är tvåtrådig och har en ganska hög snodd. Tråden är också grövre än tråden i väven på tyget.
Vad textilen har varit vet vi ännu inte men vi kommer att analysera denna närmare längre fram.
/ Amica och Maria

English: 
We often get questions about which sewing thread that have been used to sew clothes with during different historical periods. There is no easy answer to that, because the data is very often insufficient and can’t provide a good statistic basis. Very often there are no seams or sewing threads in archeological finds. But when we see the sewing thread in the textiles we analyzed, we are of course very happy and add the information in our overall database of stitches and sewing thread

Cellulose is degraded by moisture and survives therefore very poorly in the soil. It is quite rare to find linen or linen thread among the archaeological finds. However, there are both linen and linen sewing thread in a number of textiles that have been preserved above ground.
Wool does not decompose as quickly as cellulose and therefore  is the retention rate higher for wool. Archelolgical textiles are not 100% representative for the kinds of textiles that have been used during the period in question on the spot.

Above we see a sewing thread in one of the textile finds from Sigtuna, Sweden. The sewing thread is spun from wool. This find is dated to the frist or second quater of the 11th century. The thread is two-plyed and has a fairly high twist. The thread is also thicker than the thread in the woven fabric.
What the textile has been, we do not know yet, but we will analyze this further.
/ Amica and Maria